We spend a large part of each day talking and Listening. When we are not talking or listening, we are likely to communicate in order ways like reading, writing, gesturing, and drawings or sometimes taking in information by seeing, feeling, or smelling. Communication plays a intergral part not only in our personal lives but also in the professional world.

“Without communication, there can no organization, for there is no possibility then of the group influencing the behaviour of the individual”(Herbert Simon).communication is an essential ingredient if an organization is to achieve its goals.

Meaning And Definition of communication

Communication is the process by which we exchange meanings, facts, ideas, opinion, or emotions with other people.

“Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensures by feedback for the purpose of eliciting action which will accomplish organisation goals

“Communication is essentially the ability of one person to make contact with another and make himself or herself understood. Communication is the process by which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols”(john Adair)

Intrapersonal Communication

Intrapersonal communication is communication with one’s self that is any form of relaying messages to your own person.Intrapersonal communication means”intrapersonell to something that  occurring within the mind….how we are think…it makes up who we are people are as individual 

Intarpersonal communication takes place within a single person, often for the puopose of the clarifying ideas or analysing a situation . other times Intrepersonal communication understaken in order to reglect upon or appreciate somethings                                                                                                                                                                           

Intrapersonal communication is communication occurring within the mind of is communication in form of internal dialogue within the individual brain, it always intrapersonal communication among the different people. There preconceived ideas and perception are important part of intrapersonal communication. To achieve the main purpose of communication-creating understanding and harmony among persons-it is essential that man should be in harmony with himself.

Intrapersonal communication process

The process of  Intrapersonal communication include serverals stages over an an extened life cycle. Communication scholar MARK KNAPP outlined one useful framework for understanding the coming together process

Two factors influence the intrapersonal communication

1. Internal stimuli: it includes a personal motives, attitudes and self-concept (what a person thinks of himself and likes to be)

2. External stimuli: Are events, objects, and person outside the individual. A personal forms perceptions, feelings and meanings-the interpretation an impressions a person makes of himself and the surrounding at a particular time-form there internal and external stimuli.



Perceptions is the process of becoming aware of situations and adding meaningful associations to sensations. We pick up massages from external world through our eyes, ears, and other sense organs. In fact perception are sensation plus meaning.

In orther words perception is the way an object or situation appears to the concerned persons, not the object or situation itself.

Another feature of perception is that are selecative.

People often form impression of another on basic of very slim information and concentrating around certain key traits with premature evaluation. As the perception cannot attend to all the impressions and information, he sterotypes the other attending only to  those clues that allow the other person to fit into his preconceived ideas.

Preception and conceptualising

Sometimes when our expectation are violated as they do not fit into that system then usually two types

1. Defending: defending mechanisim can take the form of denial, avoidance, repressions, projection, rationalisation, etc. In denial the person refuse to admit the fact that such type of situation exits, In projecation, instead of buyning negative feelings inside the person project them outside and attributes them to someone else, Under rationalisation process people excuse themselves and accuse someone else or other factors for the frusting situation.

2. Adapting: This adapting process requires sincere will of the person to open him for examining and changing the exitsing conceptual system. When the climate becomes supportive, people are more able or examine their own and other perceoations, this bridges their communication gaps, creates understanding and brings harmony them.

How to improve intrapersonal communication

Realize the effect that your interconversations may have on you ans your personal well being listen to talk and be aware of your internal dialogue ans wheather it is positive or negative.

Monitor your thought on can ongoing basis. This will take some practice as most people are used to letting thought run randomly thought their minds.

As perception plays vital role in intrapersonal communication process, it is imperatives to improve ones perceptions. One way to improving percepting is to sharpen the observation. Gurdjieff, there are four states of conscious. The lowest state of consciousness is sleep in which man remains passive and inactive. The second lowest is walking state of consciousness in which the man walks ans work but ib sleep. The third state of consciousness or englightenment in which man sees the inner growth and elevation attained through consciouns.

      Thus self-observation is the way to become aware and attentive to ones perceptions. As the level of alertness ans awareness increases, perceptions are transformed that lead improvement in tntrapersonal communication.


Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communication include message sending and message reception between two or more individuals. A  primary concept of interpersonals communication looks at communicate acts as when there are few individuals involved unlike areas of communication such as group interaction.Interpersonal communication among two or more persons- is an important ingredient of the organisation. On the average half or more of the working time of an orangnisation is spent in interpersonal communication. “There is one phare I hate to see on any exectives evaluation, no matter how talented he may be and that the line, he has troble getting along with other people’- to me that’s the kiss of death”

Theories of interpersonal relationship and communication

As interpersonal relations dominate interpersonal communication, it is essential to understand interpersonal relations for different persectives. It will enchance our insight into the interpersonal communication

Schutz’s theory of interpersonal needs

Everyone has interpersonal  needs which different from person to person and form time to time.Through communication process, people satiafy their needs. To William Schutz’s these needs that act as drivering force behind all interpersonal are: need for inclusion, control and affection.

The need for inclusion means the need associated with other and become be accepted by other.

The need for control  means to the need exercise power and authority.

The need for affection means the urge to be close to other-varies among person

According to Schutz,s these there needs have two aspects-

What the person expresses towards other-and the other is-what the person wants from other.

The Interpersonal reflex Model

According to leavy each interpersonal act is bid’s for a complemenatry act. Along  the vertical axis an act of any kind tends to evoke an opposite act, whereas on horizonatal axis act of giving kind tends to evoke the same kind act

The implication of the interpersonal reflex is that human behaviour is neither consciously thought nor deliberately executed, but happens  reflexiverely. A  person who  is aware of his behaviour reflected on the two dimensional model can consciously choose a broad range of responses.

Communication Rules perspective

Communication rules are tacit understanding that allow people to interpret in similar ways and specifly appropriate ways to communication with other in given roles and contexts

1. Constitutive Rules: It means show that what a certain behaviour means.Example when a person of other unrelated area show interest, it means that he has some self interst.

2. Regulatives Rules: employees should do or abstain form doing. These rules may guide on matters like time, place, topic


In morden world Intra personal communication and intrapersonal communication  are very useful in every sector. So interpersonal communication conducating using direct and indirect medium of communication. Such as face to face internation as well as computer mediated communication successful. Interpersonal communication assumes that both the messages sender and understand the message being sent on a level of understand meaning and implication

Intrapersonal communication takes place within the a single person often for the purpose of clarifying ideas or Analyning


Business communication –R C Bhatia

Business communication-

R V Badi  And K Arun


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